Magnesium is an essential mineral and a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes.

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Magnesium is involved in many physiologic pathways, including energy production, nucleic acid and protein synthesis, ion transport, cell signaling, and also has structural functions. (More information)

Severe magnesium deficiency (hypomagnesemia) can impede vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. Certain individuals are more susceptible to magnesium deficiency, especially those with gastrointestinal or renal disorders, those suffering from chronic alcoholism, and older people. (More information)

Magnesium deficiency has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and metabolic disorders, including hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Preliminary studies have shown that magnesium improved insulin sensitivity in individuals at risk for diabetes. Randomized controlled trials have also investigated the role of magnesium supplementation in the prevention of complications following stroke or heart surgery. (More information)

Magnesium sulfate is used in obstetric care for the prevention of seizures in pregnant women with preeclampsia or eclampsia. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials also support a role for magnesium in preventing brain damage in premature infants. (More information)

Magnesium supplementation is currently explored in the management of various conditions, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, migraine headaches, and asthma. (More information)

Current magnesium intakes in the US population are below recommended levels (400-420 mg/day for men and 310-320 mg/day for women). Dietary sources rich in magnesium include green leafy vegetables, unrefined grains, legumes, beans, and nuts. (More information) The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for supplemental magnesium is 350 mg/day. Excessive intake of supplemental magnesium can result in adverse effects, especially in individuals with impaired kidney functions. (More information)

Magnesium plays important roles in the structure and the function of the human body. The adult human body contains about 25 grams of magnesium. Over 60% of all the magnesium in the body is found in the skeleton, about 27% is found in muscle, 6% to 7% is found in other cells, and less than 1% is found outside of cells